In 2006, CharlestonMiddle Schoolstarted an outdoor classroom program by a small group of teachers. “This program is well on its way to being a great success for our school and community. 36The students love it because they to see nature work. I love it because I see it in their eyes that they are learning about the outdoors,” said Coach Nathan Ross, a 5th grade teacher atCharlestonMiddle School. These teachers took their summer break to get this program started. 37The money for the outdoor classroom came from collecting cans, school plays, and teachers vs. students basketball games.
The outdoor classroom has different kinds of trees and plans labeled so that the students can see and know what is in their school backyard. They built an outdoor theater, bridge and bird-houses. The bridge is a walkway over a small river, which is still under construction
38The bird-houses are home to many different kinds of birds. “ I think the outdoor classroom is so much fun ! My favorite thing is the bird-houses because I love to listen to the birds sing,” said 4 th grade Kailee Porter.
The outdoor classroom connects the students with the outdoors an provides a new setting and environment for learning. “I like the outdoor classroom because we don’t have to sit in the hot classroom all day. We get to go outside and enjoy nature,” said Scott Ross, a 5 th grader.
（A）36. The teachers started an outdoor classroom program in order to ________.
A. help students learn about nature
B. take students away to the countryside
C. see what the school backyard looks like
D. get something to do when school is over
（B）37. Part of the money for the outdoor classroom came from________.
A. students in the program
B. the income from student’s plays
C. a can collector in the community
D. parents interested in the program
（A）38. ________ is one of the activities in the outdoor classroom..
A. Building bird-houses
B. Holding basket games
C. Having classes in the theater
D. Catching different kinds of birds
Joseph Lemasolai wrote a book about his life. His people, The Maasai, are nomads, meaning they do not stay in one place for long. They move their villages in search of good grass and fresh water for their cattle. 39“The cow is the centerpiece of pretty much everything we do,” Joseph explains. “ That’s why we move. We could not be nomads without cattle. You can’t move for nothing- you can’t just walk around!”
When he was very young, 40Joseph spent much of his time looking after his family’s cattle, taking them to food and water and watching out for lions. He played on the grassland with his friends.
When Joseph was about six years old, he left his family to attend a boarding school. There, Joseph faced difficulties much like other children do. He was laughed at because he was fat. He got into trouble daily with his teachers.
But Joseph also faced difficulty most children do not. 41“Every time school closed for vacation, I had to find my way home,” Joseph says. “That was ones of the hardest things: The village might be 5 miles away, or it might be 50. Sometimes I wouldn’t know exactly where my family was. I had to search for them.”
Joseph later attended high school in a city. After graduation, he went to college. Finally, he became a social studies teacher, and now he is teaching seventh graders at a school.
Every summer, Joseph travels back to the grassland to visit his mother, brothers, and friends. 42And he takes a group of students with him to see both the beauty and the difficulty of growing up in the part of the country. “ I like to show them the other side of the coin,” Joseph says.
（C）39. The word “centerpiece” in Paragraph 1 means “________”.
A. the reason of moving
B. the things already done
C. the most important part
D. the animal in the middle
（C）40. Before going to school, Joseph spent a lot of his time________.
A. visiting his friends from place to place
B. getting food and water for his family
C. taking care of his family’s cattle
D. watching lions on the grassland
（A）41. When school closed for vacation, Joseph had great difficulty________.
A. finding out where his home and village were
B. understanding what he was required to do
C. getting in touch with his teachers
D. walking 5 to 50 miles in a day.
（D）42.By taking some of his students home, Joseph wants them to ________.
A. deal with difficult situations
B. know about his love for his family
C. realize what the people really need
D. learn about a different way of living
Clay is important because it is used to make containers of all kinds. 43Workers add water to soften clay. This makes it easier to form into shapes by hand or by machine. Then it is heated to a very high temperature. The result is a container that will last for many years.
In many countries, clay was formed from volcanoes.44 This kind of clay usually contains many minerals. So the fires to make containers from volcanic clay must be hotter than those used for non-volcanic clay. The fires may be as hot as1400℃, The high temperature should not be reached too fast so that the containers can be dried slowly
You can add some materials to clay to gain desired results. For example, 45 you can add sand to prevent tiny breaks or lines from forming on the surface of the final product. But you should not use sand from the coasts of oceans, Instead, you should use from rivers or other areas.
46Clay often exists in fields covered with some water. The clay will be found about one meter below the ground. River banks often also have clay about one meter or less under the surface. Clay is very shiny when it is wet. You can also take some of the material and add enough water to it. Then press it in your hands until it is about the size of an egg. It is probably clay if it holds together when you stop pressing
（A）43. What do workers do with clay to make it into different shapes?
A. Soften it by putting water into it
B. Heat it to a very high temperature
C. Harden its surface by pressing it
D. Add some materials into it.
（D）44. What’s the difference between volcanic clay and non-volcanic clay?
A. Volcanic clay can be found in very few countries.
B. Non-volcanic clay can be dried more quickly.
C. Non-volcanic clay makes better containers
D. Volcanic clay usually has more minerals
（A）45. In making containers sand is added to clay ________.
A. to produce containers free from tiny breaks
B. to make desired lines on the surface
C. to make it easier to shape
D. to get special patterns
（C）46.Clay can often be found ________.
A. along the coast of the ocean
B. anywhere under the ground
C. in water-covered fields
D. under volcanoes
Nearly five million people seeGrand Canyoneach year.
Most of them see it from their cars at overlooks along the South Rim. The South Rim is the easiest to reach in the park.
The South Rim is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Services are provided and facilities are open year round..
47 A much smaller number of people see the Canyon from the North Rim, which lies just 10 miles directly across the Canyon from the South Rim. The North Rim rises a thousand feet higher than the South Rim, and is more difficult to reach. 48Heavy snows close the road to the North Rim from late October to mid-May of each year. Even in good weather it’s harder to get to.
49The inner canyon includes everything below the rim and is seen mainly by campers, mule rider, or river runners. There are many opportunities here for adventurous persons who want to camp, ride a mule to Phanton Ranch, or take a river trip through the Canyon on theColorado River.
Visitor services and facilities inside the national park on the north Rim are only open from mid-May to late October. Weather permitting, the North Rim is open fro day use only, following the close of facilities in late October, During this time there are neither services nor overnight facilities.
（D）47. What do we learn from the passage about the South Rim?
A. It attracts over five million visitors each year
B. It is hard to get to even in good weather
C. It is not open in winter months
D. It is lower than the North Rim
（B）48. From late October to mid-May,_______ the North Rim.
A. many mule riders come to
B. heavy snows block the way to
C. services are provided 24 hours on
D. the weather is usually pleasant on
（D）49.To see the inner part of the Canyon visitors can _______.
A. follow the mules passing by
B. drive a car to Phantom Ranch
C. have campers take them there
D. take a trip on theColorado River
（B）50. The article is most probably from _______.
A. a history book for children
B. a guidebook for tourists
C. a newspaper for businessmen
D. a magazine for sportsmen
Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it is painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.
During the hours when you labor through your work you may say that you’re “hot”. That’s true. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the forenoon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to such familiar monologues (自言自语) as: “Get up, John! You’ll be late for work again!” The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has.
You can’t change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life it better. Habit can help, Dr. Kleitman believes. Maybe you’re sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway. Counteract (对抗) your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour. This won’t change your cycle, but you’ll get up steam (鼓起干劲) and work better at your low point.
Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get with a leisurely yawl and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the trouble some search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before. When ever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.
1. If a person finds getting up early a problem, most probably _______.
A. he is a lazy person
B. he refuses to follow his own energy cycle
C. he is not sure when his energy is low
D. he is at his peak in the afternoon or evening
2. Which of the following may lead to family quarrels according to the passage?
A. Unawareness of energy cycles.
B. Familiar monologues.
C. A change in a family member’s energy cycle.
D. Attempts to control the energy cycle of other family member.
3. If one wants to work more efficiently at his low point in the morning, he should _____.
A. change his energy cycle
B. overcome his laziness
C. get up earlier than usual
D. go to bed earlier
4. You are advised to rise with a yawn and stretch because it will ______.
A. help to keep your energy for the day’s work
B. help you to control your temper early in the day
C. enable you to concentrate on your routine work
D. keep your energy cycle under control all day
5. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?
A. Getting off to work with a minimum effort helps save one’s energy.
B. Dr. Kleitman explains why people reach their peak at different hours of day.
C. Habit helps a person adapt to his own energy cycle.
D. Children have energy cycles, too.
The home computer industry has been growing rapidly in theUnited Statesfor the last ten years. Computers used to be large, expensive machines that were very difficult to use. But scientists and technicians have been making them smaller and cheaper while at the same time they have been made easier to use. As a result, their popularity has been increasing as more people have been buying computers for their homes and businesses.
Computers have been designed to store information and compute problems that are difficult for human beings to work out. Some have voices that speak with the operators. Stores use computers to keep records of their inventories (库存货物) and to send bills to their customers. Offices use computers to copy letters, record business and keep in touch with other offices. People have been using computers in their homes to keep track of the money they spend.
One important new use for computers is for entertainment. Many new games have been designed to be played on the computers. People of all ages have been playing these games. People also have been buying home computers to play computer games, watch movies and listen to concerts at home. They have become very popular indeed.
6. Computers used to _______.
A. work rapidly
B. be large and expensive
C. be easy to use
D. be used for fun
7. In recent years, computers are being made _______.
A. larger and more expensive
B. smaller and cheaper
C. more difficult to use
D. to work more slowly
8. Home computers can be used for _______.
A. writing letters
B. playing games
C. doing business
D. all of the above
9. Salesmen use computers mainly to _______.
A. check the list of goods and materials that are kept in the store house
B. play games for pleasure
C. talk with their friends
D. write letters
10. The best title for the passage would be _______.
A. New Uses For Computers
B. The Popularity of Home Computers
C. The Home Computer Industry
D. Computers At Home
During the American War of Independence, women played an active part in fighting in three ways. First, women formed a special branch of the Continental Army, spoken of as “Women of the Army”, some women worked as nurses in the field hospitals, tending wounded soldiers; some worked as cooks in the army troops; a good many women acted as water carriers, when necessary, all the above-mentioned women who had had many chances to observe how the men fired guns, could take the place of the wounded men. The second way that women served in the Army was as regular troop members who wore men’s uniforms and fought side by side with their men comrades. In theory, women were not supposed to fight as soldiers in battles. But when the Army was badly short of soldiers and when women were really good soldiers, who would be against women fighting in battles? Thirdly, from city streets to country villages, many able women were in charge of the work to supply food, clothing and medicine for the Army, and when the situation was dangerous, they called on all the women to take up arms to defend their own homes.
11. What is the main idea expressed in this passage?
A. Women played an important part in the field hospitals during the Revolutionary War.
B. The Continental Army was successful in teaching women to fight as soldiers.
C. The services of women on committees of safety were important in winning the war.
D. Women were active in the struggle againstBritainduring the Revolutionary War.
12. Women sometimes used guns in battles because ___________.
A. they had noticed men fire guns and were therefore able to replace the wounded men
B. many military（军事的）schools had trained them for fighting
C. they had a better safety record than men for using weapons（武器）
D. it was against the law for women to fire guns
13. What is probably the main reason that women were permitted to fight in the war?
A. Women were braver than men in battles.
B. They were badly needed to make battle uniforms.
C. Women of that time were particularly healthy and strong.
D. The Army extremely needed soldiers to fight in battles.
14. A field hospital is a hospital ____________.
A. that is built in an open field
B. that is on or near the front of battle and gives the wounded soldiers quick treatment
C. where wounded soldiers are operated on
D. which is set up in open farms
15. This passage would most probably be assigned（布置）reading for a course in what subject?
C. Social Work.
D. Labor studies.